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Shah Abbas I

Born: 1571 AD
Died: 1629 AD
Nationality: Persian
Categories: King

1571 – Born on January 27, 1571 in Herat, Afghanistan. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Shah.

1581 – He was proclaimed ruler of Khorasan, in the midst of anarchy.

1588 – In October 1588 he obtained possession of the Persian throne, by revolting against his father, Mohammad, and imprisoning him. He accomplished it with the help of Morshed Gholi Ostajlou. He recognized the ineffectualness of his army which was consistently being defeated by the Ottomans who had captured Georgia and Armenia and by Uzbeks who had captured Mashhad and Sistan in the east.

1589-1590 – He signed a separate peace with Ottomans (including the cession of large areas of west and northwest Persia) and then directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbeks, who occupied and harassed Khorasan.

1592 – He moved his capital from Qazvin to the more central and more persian Isfahan. Embellished by a magnificent series of new mosques, baths, colleges, caravansaries, Isfahan soon became one of the most beaufitul cities in the world.

1597 – After a long and severe struggle, Abbas regained Mashhad, and defeated the Uzbeks in a great battle near Herat in 1597, driving them beyond the Oxus River. In the meantime, taking advantage of tsar Ivan the Terrible’s death (1584), he had gained the homage of the provinces on the southern Caspian Sea, which had depended from Russia till then.

1602 – Abbas launched a campaign against the Ottomans.

1603 – He obtained a first pitch victory, which forced them to give back the territory they had seized, including Baghdad.

1605 – Following a victory at Basra, he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates.

1611 – Sultan Ahmed I was compelled to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan to Abbas.

1615 – He killed more than 60,000 Georgians and deported a further 100,000 in Tblisi after a rebellion.

1618 – The united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh by Abbas.

1622 – With the support of the British fleet, Abbas took the island of Hormuz from the Portuguese: much of the trade was diverted to the town of Bandar Abbas which he had taken from the Portuguese and had named after himself. He expanded commercial links with the English East India Company and the Dutch East India Company.

1629 – Abbas the Great died in Mazandaran on January 19, 1629. He was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. His dominions extended from the Tigris to the Indus, even overcoming the Persian borders of pre-Islam times. His fame is tarnished, however, by numerous deeds of tyranny and cruelty, particularly against his own family. Afraid of a coup by his family (as he had done to his father), he locked them up in palaces in order to keep them without knowledge of the outside world. This resulted in weak successors. He killed his eldest son, Safi Mirza, leaving his throne to his grandson Safi.