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Freud, Sigmund

Born: 1856 AD
Died: 1939 AD
Nationality: Austrian
Categories: Neurologist

1856 – Born on May 6th in Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire (now PYíbor, Czech Republic). An Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis.

1859  – The Freud family was compelled for economic reasons to move to Leipzig and then a year after to Vienna, where Freud remained until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 years later.

1873 – Graduated from the Sperl Gymnasium and, apparently inspired by a public reading of an essay by Goethe on nature, turned to medicine as a career.

1882 – He entered the General Hospital in Vienna as a clinical assistant to train with the psychiatrist Theodor Meynert and the professor of internal medicine Hermann Nothnagel.

1885 – Freud was appointed lecturer in neuropathology, having concluded important research on the brain’s medulla.

         – Freud left Vienna to continue his studies of neuropathology at the Salpêtrière clinic in Paris, where he worked under the guidance of Jean-Martin Charcot.

1886 – Freud was soon to abandon his faith in hypnosis, he returned to Vienna in February with the seed of his revolutionary psychological method implanted.

1895 – In part an extrapolation of the automatic writing promoted by the German Jewish writer Ludwig Börne a century before, in part a result of his own clinical experience with other hysterics, this revolutionary method was announced in the work Freud published jointly with Breuer, "Studien über Hysterie" (Studies in Hysteria).

1897 – He disclosed in a now famous letter to Fliess of September 2nd, he concluded that, rather than being memories of actual events, these shocking recollections were the residues of infantile impulses and desires to be seduced by an adult.

         – In July, Freud attempted to reveal their meaning by drawing on a technique that had been available for millennia: the deciphering of dreams.

1904 – Freud published "Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens" (The Psychopathology of Everyday Life), in which he explored such seemingly insignificant errors as slips of the tongue or pen (later colloquially called Freudian slips).

1905 – Freud extended the scope of this analysis by examining Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten (Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious).

         – Freud also published the work that first thrust him into the limelight as the alleged champion of a pansexualist understanding of the mind: "Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie" (Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory, later translated as Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality), revised and expanded in subsequent editions.

1909 – Along with Jung and Ferenczi, made a historic trip to Clark University in Worcester.
1914 – While examining the phenomenon of narcissism, he came to consider the latter instinct as merely a variant of the former. Unable to accept so monistic a drive theory, Freud sought a new dualistic alternative.

1939 – He died on September 23rd in London, England.


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