431 B.C – He was born this year around Athens, Greece. He is the son of Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens, was a soldier, mercenary and an admirer of Socrates and is known for his writings on the history of his own times, the sayings of Socrates, and the life of Greece. He approached manhood during the last turbulent years of the Peloponnesian War during this year until 404 B.C, in which he himself took part as a cavalryman.
406 – He participated at the sea battle of Arginusae.
401 B.C – He says that he had asked the veteran Socrates for advice on whether to go with Cyrus, and that Socrates referred him to the divinely inspired Delphic oracle. In the same year, his Boeotian friend Proxenus invited him to join the expedition of Cyrus the Younger who was in rebellion against his brother King Artaxerxes II of Persia. After Cyrus had been defeated and killed at Cunaxa, he was elected a general and played a major part in the evacuation of the Greek expeditionary force to Trapezus (Northeastern Turkey).
396 – From this year and 394 B.C, he fought against the Persian satrap Pharnabazus in the service of Agesilaus, king of Sparta.
395 B.C – He formed a strong attachment; and when Agesilaus was called home in in this year at the outset of the Corinthian War in which Sparta was rutted against Thebes, he took part in the battle of Coronea in 394 B.C, thus fighting against his own Athenian compatriots, who were in alliance with Thebes. Subsequently, he settled with his family at Sparta.
371 B.C – He was presented by the Spartans with an estate at Scillus in Elis (northwestern Peloponnese) where he spent the next two decades living the life of a literary country gentleman, dividing his time between hunting and writing. The Spartans appointed him as their envoy (proxenos) to look after such of their citizens as visited Olympia nearby. When, after its defeat by the Thebans at the battle of Leuctra in this year, Sparta lost possession of Scillus, Xenophon and his family moved to a new residence on the Isthmus of Corinth.
365 B.C – However, relations between Athens and Sparta having now improved, the Athenians repealed his condemnation to exile, and it seems likely that he returned to Athens and lived there.
362 B.C – His sons Gryllus and Diodorus (by his wife Philesia) were members of an Athenian contingent fighting with the Spartans against the Thebans at Mantinea, and Gryllus was killed.
354 B.C. – He was probably on a visit to Corinth, Ancient Greece when he passed away this year.