Muggeridge, Edward James
1830 - Born on April 9th in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, England. English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion and in motion-picture projection.
1868 - He emigrated to the United States as a young man but remained obscure, when his large photographs of Yosemite Valley, California, made him world famous.
1872 - Muybridge's experiments in photographing motion began, when the railroad magnate Leland Stanford hired him to prove that during a particular moment in a trotting horse's gait all four legs are off the ground simultaneously.
1877 - He returned to California and resumed his experiments in motion photography, using a battery of from 12 to 24 cameras and a special shutter he developed that gave an exposure of 2/1,000 of a second. This arrangement gave satisfactory results and proved Stanford's contention.
1884-1887 - Muybridge made his most important photographic studies of motion under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania.
- These consisted of photographs of various activities of human figures, clothed and naked, which were to form a visual compendium of human movements for the use of artists and scientists. Many of these photographs were published in the portfolio “Animal Locomotion, An Electro-Photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movement”.
1893 - The results of Muybridge's work were widely published, most often in the form of line drawings taken from his photographs. They were criticized, however, by those who thought that horse's legs could never assume such unlikely positions. To counter such criticism, Muybridge gave lectures on animal locomotion throughout the United States and Europe.
- These lectures were illustrated with a zoopraxiscope, a lantern he developed that projected images in rapid succession onto a screen from photographs printed on a rotating glass disc, producing the illusion of moving pictures.
- The zoopraxiscope display, an important predecessor of the modern cinema, was a sensation at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
1900 - Muybridge continued to publicize and publish his work until he retired to his birthplace.
1904 - Died on May 8th in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, England.
Page last updated: 12:37pm, 10th May '07