1122 - Frederick was born. 1147 - He became duke of Swabia and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanying his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. 1153 - In March, Frederick concluded a treaty with Rome whereby, in return for his coronation, he promised to defend the papacy and to make no peace with king Roger II of Sicily or other enemies of the Church without the consent of Eugene. 1155 - He left Italy in the autumn to prepare for a new and more formidable campaign. 1156 - On the 9th of June at Würzburg, Frederick married Beatrice of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Renaud III. 1158 - In June, Frederick set out upon his second Italian expedition, accompanied by Henry the Lion and his fearsome Saxons. 1160 - Frederick declared his support for Antipope Victor IV. 1162 - Returning to Germany towards the close, Frederick prevented the escalation of conflicts between Henry the Lion of Saxony and a number of neighbouring princes who were growing weary of Henry's power, influence and territorial gains. 1166 - In October, he went once more on journey to Italy to secure the claim of his Antipope Pascal, and the coronation of his wife Beatrice as Holy Roman Empress. 1174 - Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy and, in response, the pro-papal Lombard League was formed to stand against him. 1176 - Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Legnano near Milan, on the 29th of May, where he was wounded and for some time was believed to be dead. 1180 - Frederick had Henry tried in absentia by a court of bishops and princes, declared that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, and had Henry stripped of his lands and declared an outlaw. 1190 - On the 10th of June, Frederick died while crossing the Saleph River in Cilicia, south-eastern Anatolia.
Page last updated: 2:13am, 25th Dec '09