1868 – Born on the 9th of July.
1919 – He served as the Defense Minister of Germany.
1906 – He was a member of the Social Democratic Party and became a member of the German Parliament.
1920 – He was the president of the Province of Hanover.
1933 – He was dismissed by the Nazi government.
1944 – He was arrested by the Gestapo under suspicion of complicity in anti-Hitler plots.
1946 – He died on the 30th of November.