1532-1534 – Educated (the Catholic way) at the court of Archbishop Cardinal Albrecht II. von Mainz.
1537 – Educated (the Lutheran way) in Torgau, at the initiative of Duke-Elector of (Ernestine) Saxony, John Frederick.
1541 – Maurice succeeded his father as Duke of (Albertine Saxony), which under his father had introduced the Lutheran reformation.
1541 – He married Agnes, daughter of Count Philip the Magnanimous of Hessen.
1542-1544 – Maurice adopted a policy of supporting Emperor Charles V. against the Turks and the French.
1545 – He supported the expulsion of Duke Henry of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel by the Schmalkaldic League.
1546 – Maurice pursued a policy of separating religion and policy; in doing so, he was ahead of his time. He entered into a secret alliance with the Emperor, and, being promised territorial gain at the expense of his Ernestine relatives, attacked Electoral Saxony, beginning the Schmalkaldic War.
1547 – The Battle of Muhlberg decided the war against John Frederick, who lost the major part of his territory, Electoral Saxony, which was granted to Maurice by the Diet of Augsburg.
1552 – He marched his army on Augsburg, where the Reichstag was deliberating, taking control of the city and marching on toward Innsbruck, where the Emperor was residing; he fled.
1553 – Maurice lead the Imperial forces against the Turks; later that year he campaigned in Germany against Count Albrecht Achilles von Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
– During the campaign he was assassinated, age 32.