1863 – On the 9th of June, Dost Mahommed has nominated as his successor Shir Ali, his third son, passing over the two elder brothers, Afzul Khan and Azim Khan, At first, the new amir was quietly recognized but Afzul Khan raised an insurrection in the northern province. This began a fierce contest for power between Dost Mahommed’s sons, which lasted for nearly five years in which Abdur Rahman Khan became distinguished for his ability and daring energy.
1866 – On March, Abdur Rahman Khan and his uncle, Azim Khan, occupied Kabul.
1866 – The Amir Shir Ali marched up against them from Kandahar but on the 10th of May, Amir Shir Ali was
deserted by a large body of his troops, and after his signal defeat Abdur Rahman released his father from prison in Ghazni and installed him upon the throne as Amir of Afghanistan.
1867 – Not withstanding the new amir’s incapacity, and some jealousy between the real leaders, Abdur Rahman and his uncle, they again routed Shir Ali’s forces, and occupied Kandahar.
1868 – At the end of the year, Afzul Khan died and Azim Khan became the new ruler, with Abdur Rahman as his governor in the northern province.
1869 – But towards the end of 1868, Shir Ali returned and a general rising in his favour, resulted in Abdur Rahman and Azim Khan’s defeat at Tinah Khan on the 3rd of January 3. Bought sought refuge in Persia, whence Abdur Rahman placed himself under Russian protection at Samarkand. Azim died in Persia in October.
1869-1879 – Abdur Rahman live in exile in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, for eleven years until the death of Shir Ali.
1880 – On 22nd of July, Abdur Rahman was officially recognized as Amir, granted assistance in arms and money. and promised, in case of unprovoked foreign aggression, such further aid might be necessary to repel it, provided that he align his foreign policy with the British.
1885 – He was given the insignia of the highest grade of the Order of the Star of India.
1892 – He succeeded in finally beating down the resistance of the Hazara tribe.
1895 – The Amir was unable to visit England with an invitation from Queen Victoria, but his second son Nasrulla Khan went in his stead.
1896 – Abdur Rahman Khan adopted the title of Tia-ul-hlillat-ud Din ("Light of the nation and religion") and his zeal for the cause of Islam induced him to publish treaties on Jihad.
1901 – Abdur Rahman Khan died on the 1st of October, being succeeded bu his son Habibullah. He had defeated all enterprises by rivals against his throne; he had broken down the power of local chiefs, and tamed the refractory tribes; so that his orders were irresistible throughout the whole dominion. His government was a military despotism resting upon a well-appointed army; it was administered through officials absolutely subservient to an inflexible will and controlled by a widespread system of espionage; while the exercise of his personal authority was too often stained by acts of unnecessary cruelty. He held open courts for the receipt of petitioners and the dispensation of justice; and in the disposal of business he was indefatigable. He succeeded in imposing an organized government upon the fiercest and most unruly population in Asia; he availed himself of European inventions for strengthening his armament, while he sternly set his face against all innovations which, like railways and telegraphs, might give Europeans a foothold within his country. His adventurous life, his forcible character, the position of his state as a barrier between the Indian and the Russian empires, and the skill with which he held the balance in dealing with them, combined to make him a prominent figure in contemporary Asian politics and will mark his reign as an epoch in the history of Afghanistan.