1391 – Gloucester, Humphrey, duke of, English nobleman; youngest son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun. He was well educated and had a great interest in humanist scholarship.
1414 – Accession of his eldest brother as Henry V, Humphrey was created, duke of Gloucester and earl of Cambridge.
1415 – Served in Henry’s French campaigns and was wounded at the battle of Agincourt.
1420 – 1421 – Remained in England as regent during Henry’s absence.
1422 – When Henry was succeeded by his infant son, Henry VI, Gloucester claimed the regency. However, Parliament disregarded this claim, which was based on Henry V’s will, and made Gloucester’s older brother, John of Lancaster, duke of Bedford, protector of the realm. Since Bedford was occupied in France, Gloucester was given the title of protector during his absences, but he had to share his authority with a council of magnates. Gloucester’s ensuing struggle for power against his uncle, Henry Beaufort, forced Bedford to return from France several times to reconcile them.
– Gloucester married Jacqueline of Hainaut but abandoned her after their disastrous military expedition to Hainaut.
1428 – A papal decree invalidated that marriage and permitted him to marry his mistress, Eleanor Cobham, but he was severely criticized.
1429 – Was crowned king of England.
1431 – Was crowned king of France, and Beaufort’s ascendancy henceforth increased.
1435 – Became heir presumptive, but his influence with the young king waned as he advocated continuing the unsuccessful war in France.
1441 – Eleanor, Gloucester’s wife, was imprisoned for sorcery against the king, Gloucester’s political importance was practically ended.
1447 – William de la Pole, 4th earl of Suffolk (see under Pole, family), who had succeeded Beaufort as the king’s chief adviser, had Gloucester arrested for treason. The duke fell sick and died in custody.