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Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar, Caesar)

Born: 100 BC
Died: 44 BC.

Nationality: Roman
Categories: Authors, Emperor, Military Officer, Orators, Politicial Adviser


100 AC - Birth of the Roman general, politician, and reformer.


84 AC - Married Cornelia, Lucius Cornelius CINNA's daughter - rejected the order of Lucius Cornelius SULLA to divorce her - joined populist party led by Lucius Cornelius Cinna the Elder, becoming rival of Sulla, leader of oligarchic party  


80 AC - Collected a fleet from Nicomedes IV of Bythinia, his Roman ally 78 BC - returned home after Sulla died.


77 AC - Supported refurbishment of tribunation powers and the recall from exile of the people who supported Marcus Aemilius LEPIDUS in Caesar's revolt 75-74 BC - had the pirates, who captured him while he was on his way to Rhodes, executed as soon as he obtained ransom - in 74 BC, fought against MITHRADATES VI of Pontus


73 AC - Became a pontiff at Rome.


72-71 AC - Between these years, he took the side of the people who seek power from outside the circle of nobles dominating the Senate.


69-68 AC - Quaestor in Spain.


68 AC - He married Pompeia after Cornelia died.


65 AC- Curule aedile.


64 AC - Presided the trials of the people who committed murder during Sulla's proscription.


63 AC - Pontifex maximus.


62 AC - Praetor.


61 AC - Governor of Further Spain - protege of Marcus Licinius Crassus - reconciled Crassus with Pompey the Great, marrying Pompey's relative Pompeia to cement alliance


60 AC - With Crassus and Pompey, formed 1st Triumvirate.


59 AC - Consul.


58 AC - Proconsul in Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria.


58 AC - 051b - upon migration of Helvetii from Switzerland to Gaul, launched conquest of Gaul (Gallic Wars).


58 AC - Defeated Helvetii at Bibracte - defeated Suevi under Ariovistus at Vesontio.


57 AC - Defeated Belgii (including Nervii) in northwestern Gaul.


56 AC - Defeated Veneti in Brittany - defeated Aquitani in southwestern Gaul.


55-53 AC - Crossed Rhine for forays into Germany.


55 AC - Unsuccessfully invaded Britain.


54 AC - Launched more successful invasion of Britain - defeating Cassivellaunus north of Thames - began estrangement from Crassus and Pompey following death of daughter Julia (wife of Pompey).


52 AC - Suppressed revolt led by Vercingetorix.


51 AC - Destroyed remaining resistance.


49 AC - Disregarded senate's order to disband army, and instead crossed Rubicon river (boundary between Gaul and Italy proper) initiating civil war against Pompey - upon crossing Rubicon, made remark "Alea iacta est" (also "The die is cast").


49-48 AC - Quickly gained control over all Italy as Pompey fled to eastern provinces.


49-44 AC - De facto dictator of Rome.


48 AC - pursued Pompey to Epirus and defeated him at battle of Pharsalus prompting Pompey to flee to Egypt - pursued Pompey to Egypt, where Pompey was murdered on orders of Ptolemy XII, and initiated successful war resulting in downfall of Ptolemy XII - installed Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII as co-regents of Egypt and conducted love affair with Cleopatra.


47 AC - upon invasion of Roman-controlled Syria by Pharnaces II, advanced into Pontus and defeated Pharnaces at battle of Zela  (subject of Caesar's remark "Veni, vidi, vici", also "I came, I saw, I conquered")


46 AC - Returned to Rome and suppressed mutiny by Tenth Legion


46 AC - defeated remaining Pompey loyalists at battle of Thapsus in Africa - instituted more accurate calendar, with 365.25 days per year (Julian calendar).


45 AC - After winning the battle of Munda in Spain he then returned to Rome - initiated reforms, including enlargement of senate and broader extension of citizenship - wrote history-commentaries "De bello Gallico" (also "On the Gallic War") and "De bello civili" (also "On the Civil War").


44 AC - Formally offered royal crown, but declined - began planning the Parthian conquest - on March 15, he was assassinated by conspiracy of subordinates, led by Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, and Decimus Brutus; he was stabbed at a meeting of the Senate in Pompey's theater (Ides of March).


Page last updated: 4:20pm, 21st Dec '09