1912 – Born in Brooklyn, New York.
1932 – He earned his bachelor’s degree summa cum laude in economics from Harvard University.
1939 – Earned his doctorate in economics from Columbia University.
1945-1946 – He was economic adviser to the United States representative on the Allied Reparations Commission.
1949 – Joined the economics faculty at Stanford.
1962-1963 – Worked as economic adviser to the secretary general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris.
1977 – Retired from the William Robertson Coe Professorship in American Economic History at Stanford.
1985 – He received honorary doctorate from the University of Uppsala in Sweden.
1991 – Invited to become a fellow of the prestigious Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome.
1992 – Received another doctorate at the University of Ancona in Italy.
2000 – Died on December 1st at Stanford University Hospital from an infection, just one month before his 89th birthday.